• A broad field encompassing human-computer interaction, information science, information technology, algorithms, and social science.

• Information Science – the study of the processing, management and retrieval of information.

• Information Technology – the study, design, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems.

• Algorithms – a process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem solving operations, especially by a computer.

• Social Science – the scientific study of human society and social relationships.

• Futuring - the field of using a systematic process for thinking about, picturing possible outcomes and planning for the future.  For example, a project that provides visions of future laboratory services such as a proposed new and improved handheld device for lab testing in the field.

• Emerging Issues – tools, resources and communications that can aid with an issue (positive or negative) that may have significant impact on human and/or ecosystem health.

• Different sections of a laboratory that provide different testing services.  For example, in a public health laboratory there may be a Tuberculosis lab division, an STD lab division, a newborn screening and genetics testing lab division, etc.

• The act or process of legislating; lawmaking.  This is divided into two categories:  appropriations and authorizations.

• Appropriations – An appropriations bill is a legislative act proposing to authorize the expenditure of public funds for a specified purpose.  Examples of these are budget bills, the CRs, omnibuses, etc.

• Authorizations – An authorization bill refers to a public law enabling federal government to carry out various functions and programs.  It permits the operation of a federal program or agency, or to sanction a particular type of obligation or expenditure.  Examples are PAHPA, FSMA, ACA, etc.

Marketing is a general term used to describe all the various activities involved in transferring goods and services from producers to consumers. In addition to the functions commonly associated with it, such as advertising and sales promotion, marketing also encompasses product development, packaging, distribution channels, pricing, and many other functions.

Condition of functioning or being active; the operations or backbone of the day to day structure of the laboratory such as Organization (or administration), Customer focus (service), Facilities and safety, Personnel, Purchasing and Inventory, Equipment, Process management (SOPs), documents and records, Information management, nonconformance management, assessments (CLIA and CAP) and continual improvement.

Chance or set of circumstances that make it possible to accomplish/achieve a goal.  Partnerships can bring about new opportunities for garnering funding, conducting research or solving a major public health issue.

Tools and resources to assist laboratories with the achievement of quality testing services to strengthen and promote public health laboratories and related systems.

Systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.  Research related to public health could be technological/scientific in nature or public health systems research.

• Research and Development - Research and development (R & D) is a process intended to create new or improved technology that can provide a competitive advantage at the business, industry, or national level. While the rewards can be very high, the process of technological innovation (of which R & D is the first phase) is complex and risky.

• Scientific Research – research into questions posed by scientific theories and hypotheses.

• Public Health Systems Research – a field of study that examines the organization, financing, delivery of public health services within communities and the impact of these services on public health.

The population available to perform the essential functions of public health.  The workforce section is designed to provide tools and resources as well as information and guidance on:

• The scope, functions, systems and processes of PHLs
• Requirements and background of the professionals that accomplish the work through a self help portal
• Practical applications of model practices from the field that make labs more effective and efficient
• Increasing the visibility and promoting awareness of PHL science and the contributions that are made to communities
• Real time leadership and management development experiences to strengthen the workforce through onsite participation and distance based learning